Bladder Stones or Urolithiasis

AKC GAZETTE DECEMBER 2015
Cardigan Welsh Corgi Breed Column



Our guest columnist is Barbara S. Merickel, DVM. Barbara is chair of the Cardigan Welsh Corgi Club of America Health Committee and a current board member.


Urinary calculi, uroliths, and bladder stones are all names for a medical condition known as urolithiasis Urolithiasis can occur in any dog and is not uncommon. It develops when minerals present in the urine form crystals, which then unite into small grains. Over time these grow, as more mineral is deposited on each grain.

Uroliths can develop in the kidneys, ureters, bladder, or urethra; in dogs, the majority form in the bladder.

Signs of urolithiasis include frequent urination, straining to urinate, and blood in the urine. Occasionally a small stone will pass into the urethra and cause an obstruction. Obstructed dogs strain to urinate but are unable to pass more than a drop at a time. This is life threatening, and if the blockage can’t be relieved by passing a urinary catheter, emergency surgery will be required.

Some uroliths can be palpated in the bladder, and the diagnosis can often be confirmed by radiographs, but some stones are radiolucent. In those cases the diagnosis is made with ultrasound.

One of the most common types of uroliths are composed of magnesium ammonium phosphate and are commonly called struvite stones. These are usually associated with bladder infections and alkaline urine, and they can often be dissolved by a special diet if the infection is successfully treated.

Another common stone is composed of calcium oxalate. It develops in acidic urine and is often associated with increased levels of calcium in the urine. Diets designed to prevent struvite stones may actually predispose dogs to developing calcium oxalate stones.

Stones composed of calcium phosphate are relatively rare in dogs. Increased levels of calcium in the blood or urine may contribute to stone development. Silica stones are very rare in dogs and may be associated with diets containing silica-rich ingredients like rice or soybean hulls.

Cystine stones develop in dogs with cystinuria, a genetic defect that allows the amino acid cysteine to pass into the urine. Although rare in the dog population overall, it has been diagnosed in the Cardigan Welsh Corgi along with many other breeds. Cystine stones can often be dissolved by a special diet; since the dog will continue to excrete cysteine, a control diet will be needed to prevent the recurrence of stones.

Genetic tests for cystinuria have been developed for Labradors and Newfoundlands but have not been validated for Cardigans.

Urate stones are composed of uric acid and its salts. They develop in dogs with liver disease, most commonly portosystemic shunts, or in dogs with hyperuricosuria, a genetic defect that prevents the conversion of uric acid to allantoin. This condition is thought to affect all Dalmatians, and it affects many other dogs as well, and there is a genetic test available for all breeds.

It is essential to know the composition of bladder stones in order to successfully treat and prevent recurrence. Any urinary stones that are removed from dogs should be tested by a laboratory that specializes in urinary calculi analysis. In most cases, dogs with cystine or urate stones should not be bred. —B.S.M.

Thank you, Barbara. —Column coordinator Jeff Welch

 


First published in the AKC Gazette Digital Edition, December 2015.

© Copyright* the American Kennel Club


© Copyright* 1997 - 2017 - Cardigan Welsh Corgi Club of America, Inc. - All Rights Reserved
corgie, breeder, pups, 2elsh, 3elsh, about breed, acrdigan, acrdigan welsh corgi, aelsh, america, america inc, america ns, american, american kennel, ardigan, ardigan welsh corgi, breed, breed cardigan, breed member, breeds, c0rgi, c9rgi, ca4digan, ca4digan welsh corgi, ca5digan, ca5digan welsh corgi, caardigan, caardigan welsh corgi, caddigan, caddigan welsh corgi, cadigan, cadigan welsh corgi, cadrigan, cadrigan welsh corgi, caedigan, caedigan welsh corgi, cafdigan, cafdigan welsh corgi, carcigan, carcigan welsh corgi, card8gan, card8gan welsh corgi, card9gan, card9gan welsh corgi, carddigan, carddigan welsh corgi, cardgan, cardgan welsh corgi, cardgian, cardgian welsh corgi, cardiagn, cardiagn welsh corgi, cardian, cardian welsh corgi, cardiban, cardiban welsh corgi, cardifan, cardifan welsh corgi, cardiga, cardiga nwelsh corgi, cardiga welsh corgi, cardigaan, cardigaan welsh corgi, cardigab, cardigab welsh corgi, cardigah, cardigah welsh corgi, cardigaj, cardigaj welsh corgi, cardigam, cardigam welsh corgi, cardigan welsh corgi, cardigan 2elsh corgi, cardigan 3elsh corgi, cardigan aelsh corgi, cardigan corgi, cardigan corgi puppy, cardigan eelsh corgi, cardigan elsh corgi, cardigan ewlsh corgi, cardigan qelsh corgi, cardigan selsh corgi, cardigan w3lsh corgi, cardigan w4lsh corgi, cardigan wdlsh corgi, cardigan weelsh corgi, cardigan weksh corgi, cardigan welah corgi, cardigan weldh corgi, cardigan weleh corgi, cardigan welh corgi, cardigan welhs corgi, cardigan wellsh corgi, cardigan wels corgi, cardigan wels hcorgi, cardigan welsb corgi, cardigan welsg corgi, cardigan welsh, cardigan welsh c0rgi, cardigan welsh c9rgi, cardigan welsh ccorgi, cardigan welsh cirgi, cardigan welsh ckrgi, cardigan welsh clrgi, cardigan welsh co4gi, cardigan welsh co5gi, cardigan welsh codgi, cardigan welsh coegi, cardigan welsh cofgi, cardigan welsh cogi, cardigan welsh cogri, cardigan welsh coorgi, cardigan welsh corbi, cardigan welsh corfi, cardigan welsh corg, cardigan welsh corg8, cardigan welsh corg9, cardigan welsh corggi, cardigan welsh corgi breeder, cardigan welsh corgi breeders, cardigan welsh corgi club, cardigan welsh corgi picture, cardigan welsh corgi puppy, cardigan welsh corgi puppy for sale, cardigan welsh corgii, cardigan welsh corgj, cardigan welsh corgk, cardigan welsh corgo, cardigan welsh corgu, cardigan welsh corhi, cardigan welsh cori, cardigan welsh corig, cardigan welsh corrgi, cardigan welsh corti, cardigan welsh corvi, cardigan welsh coryi, cardigan welsh cotgi, cardigan welsh cprgi, cardigan welsh crgi, cardigan welsh crogi, cardigan welsh dorgi, cardigan welsh forgi, cardigan welsh ocrgi, cardigan welsh orgi, cardigan welsh vorgi, cardigan welsh xorgi, cardigan welshc orgi, cardigan welshcorgi, cardigan welshh corgi, cardigan welsj corgi, cardigan welsn corgi, cardigan welssh corgi, cardigan welsu corgi, cardigan welsy corgi, cardigan welwh corgi, cardigan welxh corgi, cardigan welzh corgi, cardigan weosh corgi, cardigan wepsh corgi, cardigan wesh corgi, cardigan weslh corgi, cardigan wlesh corgi, cardigan wlsh corgi, cardigan wrlsh corgi, cardigan wslsh corgi, cardigan wwelsh corgi, cardigan wwlsh corgi, cardigan your, cardigann, cardigann welsh corgi, cardigans, cardigans make, cardiganw elsh corgi, cardiganwelsh corgi, cardiggan, cardiggan welsh corgi, cardign, cardign welsh corgi, cardigna, cardigna welsh corgi, cardigqn, cardigqn welsh corgi, cardigsn, cardigsn welsh corgi, cardigwn, cardigwn welsh corgi, cardigzn, cardigzn welsh corgi, cardihan, cardihan welsh corgi, cardiigan, cardiigan welsh corgi, carditan, carditan welsh corgi, cardivan, cardivan welsh corgi, cardiyan, cardiyan welsh corgi, cardjgan, cardjgan welsh corgi, cardkgan, cardkgan welsh corgi, cardogan, cardogan welsh corgi, cardugan, cardugan welsh corgi, careigan, careigan welsh corgi, carfigan, carfigan welsh corgi, caridgan, caridgan welsh corgi, carigan, carigan welsh corgi, carrdigan, carrdigan welsh corgi, carrigan, carrigan welsh corgi, carsigan, carsigan welsh corgi, carxigan, carxigan welsh corgi, catdigan, catdigan welsh corgi, ccardigan, ccardigan welsh corgi, ccorgi, cirgi, ckrgi, clrgi, club, club america, club cardigan, co4gi, co5gi, codgi, coegi, cofgi, cogi, cogri, coorgi, corbi, corfi, corg, corg8, corg9, corggi, corgi adoption, corgi breed, corgi breeder, corgi breeders, corgi cardigan pup welsh, corgi club, corgi courageous, corgi dog, corgi dog breed, corgi dog for sale, corgi dog pet welsh, corgi dog photo, corgi dog picture, corgi family farmhand friend cardigan welsh, corgi flying, corgi for sale, corgi go, corgi guide owning cardigan welsh, corgi l, corgi photo, corgi pic, corgi picture, corgi pup, corgi puppy, corgi puppy for sale, corgi puppy picture, corgi registered, corgi rescue, corgi training, corgii, corgis, corgis corgi, corgj, corgk, corgo, corgu, corhi, cori, corig, corrgi, corti, corvi, coryi, cotgi, cprgi, cqrdigan, cqrdigan welsh corgi, cradigan, cradigan welsh corgi, crdigan, crdigan welsh corgi, crgi, crogi, csrdigan, csrdigan welsh corgi, cwcca, cwrdigan, cwrdigan welsh corgi, czrdigan, czrdigan welsh corgi, dardigan, dardigan welsh corgi, delightful companion, dog, dorgi, eelsh, elsh, everything corgi, ewlsh, family, fardigan, fardigan welsh corgi, fluffy corgi, forgi, fully, fully about, kennel, kennel club, known breeds, ocrgi, orgi, parent club, performance, performance dog, qelsh, show, show performance, tail, united states, vardigan, vardigan welsh corgi, vorgi, w3lsh, w4lsh, wales, wdlsh, weelsh, weksh, welah, welch corgi, welch corgi dog, weldh, weleh, welh, welhs, wellsh, wels, welsb, welsch corgi, welsg, welsh corgi, welsh corgi breeders, welsh corgi calendar, welsh corgi dog, welsh corgi for sale, welsh corgi picture, welsh corgi puppy, welsh corgi puppy for sale, welsh corgi rescue, welsh corgis, welshh, welsj, welsn, welssh, welsu, welsy, welwh, welxh, welzh, weosh, wepsh, wesh, weslh, with tail, wlesh, wlsh, working, working farm, wrlsh, wslsh, wwelsh, wwlsh, xardigan, xardigan welsh corgi, xorgi, pet, pet adoption, adopt a pet, pet dog, pet finder, pet breeders, corgwyn, welch, elch, ewlch, wwelch, qelch, eelch, 2elch, 3elch, aelch, selch, wlch, wlech, weelch, wwlch, wrlch, wslch, wdlch, w3lch, w4lch, wech, weclh, wellch, wekch, weoch, wepch, welhc, welcch, welvh, welfh, welc, welchh, welcg, welcj, welcy, welcu, welcb, welcn, cardi, cardis, breeders, cardi's, welch corgie, welsh corgy, welch corgy, cardigan pet, cardigan pup